عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Public spaces are expected to provide the setting for many people activities. However, expressing fear on being victimized by people, in general and by gender, religious and ethnic minorities, in particular, had impact on their presence – incorporating both in quality and quantity – in public spaces. Clearly, emerging fear of crime in urban spaces would reduce public involvement and make it allowable under limited and specific circumstances. Active involvement of women, children and elderly as well as ethnic and religious minorities are impressed by this reductionism in defining urban spaces and leads to further civilization and contraction of public spaces in a long time. The major finding of this field study in Tehran presented that some of the unsafe urban spaces which invokes physical, mental, physiological and financial threats for citizens prevented their widespread and active presence in urban spaces and in better words, contraction of urban public sphere.